Study on the conditions applicable to contracts relating to intellectual property in the European Union, L. Guibault and B. Hugenholtz

"The cross-border exploitation of copyrighted works or performances has increased dramatically in recent years. This development is evident in respect of such ‘borderless’ media such as broadcasting and information services provided online. However, more traditional sectors of the information and entertainment industries, such as book publishing and film production, are also undergoing a process of rapid internationalisation, particularly within the European Union. As a consequence, contractual relationships between authors or performers on the one hand, and publishers, broadcasters or producers on the other hand, are increasingly taking on an international dimension. In view of the differences that presently exist at the national level regarding the law applicable to copyright contracts, this process of internationalisation has, inevitably, prompted the question whether some form of harmonisation at the European level is called for. This is the central question of this study".