The International Federation of Reprographic Rights Organisations (IFRRO) and the World Intellectual Property Organisations (WIPO) published a joint study on "Text and Image based Copyright Levies".
A levy is a fee paid for the use of a copyright/author's rights protected work under exceptions or limitations to the exclusive right of reproduction that belongs to authors unless it has been assigned.
Exceptions or limitations include private uses by individuals or internal use by companies or educational institutions.
The levies are paid by the manufacturers or importers of devices or media which can be used to make copies and is ultimately born by the end-user.
This study is the first comprehensive and detailed study of text and image levies world-wide. It analyzes the origins, scope and current use of levies around the world and their role in ensuring easy legal access to copyright/authors' rights protected material.
At a time of heavy debate over the benefits of levies to consumers this study aims to provide "transparent information on the administration of the levy system with regard to authors, publishers, users of copyright works, manufacturers, importers, and other stakeholders."